Node.js-Node.js work

What is Node.js and how does Node.js work?

Node.js is a powerful open-source runtime environment for JavaScript that was created by Ryan Dahl in 2009. It is built on Google Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine and allows developers to run JavaScript code outside of the browser. Node.js is particularly well-suited for building real-time applications like web servers, chat applications, and streaming services. 
In this article, we will explore the architecture of Node.js and how it works.
The Architecture of Node.js
To understand how Node.js works, it is important to understand its architecture. When a client initiates a request to the Node.js server, the request is placed in an Event Queue. The Event Queue stores all incoming client requests and passes them sequentially to the Event Loop. The Event Loop uses the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) technique to process the requests in the order they arrive.

Once a request reaches the Event Loop, it checks the nature of the request. There are two types of requests: 
 Let's explore how Node.js handles each type.
  Non-Blocking Requests
Non-blocking requests are requests that do not block further operations. These requests are executed asynchronously, meaning that the program does not necessarily execute line by line. Instead, the program calls the function, moves to the next operation, and does not wait for the function to return.

In the case of non-blocking requests, the Event Loop processes requests that do not require external resources and returns the responses to the corresponding clients. This asynchronous nature of Node.js allows it to handle multiple requests simultaneously, making it highly scalable.

Blocking Requests
On the other hand, blocking requests are requests that are executed synchronously. These requests cause the program to pause or block further execution until the operation is completed. When a blocking request is initiated, the program will wait for the operation to finish before proceeding to the next task. This means that the program doesn't continue processing other tasks until the currently executing one is done.

In the case of blocking requests, the Event Loop assigns a thread to process the requests and returns the responses to the clients. Threads can be understood as workers who process the requests. By default, Node.js has four threads, but the number of threads can be increased based on the server's CPU core. It is important to note that the maximum number of threads on a server is equal to the server's CPU core.

Benefits of Non-Blocking Requests
Non-blocking requests are the preferred type of request in Node.js because they don't block further operations. By creating non-blocking requests, users don't have to wait for their requests to be processed, which improves the overall user experience. In contrast, blocking requests can lead to a poor user experience if the number of clients and requests increases.

In conclusion, Node.js is an open-source runtime environment for JavaScript that allows developers to run JavaScript code outside of the browser. Its architecture, which includes an Event Queue, an Event Loop, and non-blocking and blocking requests, enables it to handle multiple requests simultaneously and improve scalability. By understanding how Node.js works, developers can take full advantage of its features to build efficient and responsive applications.

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